Periodontal disease is the result of an imbalance in the microbial ecology of the oral cavity, and it also depends on host susceptibility. The prevalence of this disease is very high in most populations, and gingivitis may affect up to 100 % of the population. Factors such as socio-economic background, gender, smoking, lifestyle or stress appear to have an impact on the prevalence and severity of periodontitis in any given population.
The objective of this study was to compare the periodontopathogen prevalence and tetracycline resistance genes in Dominican patients with different periodontal conditions.
Seventy-seven samples were collected from healthy, gingivitis, chronic (CP) and aggressive (AgP) periodontitis patients. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra, Eikenella corrodens and Dialister pneumosintes and 11 resistance genes were studied by PCR. P. gingivalis fimA genotype was determined.
In healthy patients, P. micra and P. intermedia were the most and least frequently detected, respectively. T. forsythia and E. corrodens appeared in 100 % of gingivitis patients. Red complex, D. pneumosintes and E. corrodens were significantly more prevalent in CP compared to healthy patients. F. nucleatum and T. denticola were detected more frequently in AgP. A. actinomycetemcomitans was the most rarely observed in all groups. The fimA II genotype was the most prevalent in periodontitis patients. Seven tetracycline-resistant genes were detected. tet(Q), tet(32) and tet(W) showed the greatest prevalence. tet(32) was significantly more prevalent in CP than in healthy patients.
Red complex bacteria and D. pneumosintes were significantly the most prevalent species among periodontitis patients. T. forsythia was the most frequently detected in this population. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the tet(32) gene in subgingival biofilm from healthy and periodontally diseased subjects.